Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Middle and Secondary Education

First Advisor

Cathy Amanti

Second Advisor

Rhina Fernandes Williams

Third Advisor

Lisa Domke


In recent years U.S. schools have both increased the homogeneity of curriculum through the use of standards and at the same time experienced a growth in the population of students labeled as English language learners (Sleeter & Carmona, 2017). In contrast to scripted curricula that frequently emphasize White and middle-class values (Heath, 1983; Smagorinsky, 2006), students who are in the beginning stages of acquiring English have different needs from the general curriculum and pacing (Lopez et al., 2015).

Through a social constructionist lens (Berger & Luckmann, 1966; Crotty, 1998; Fish, 1980; Geertz, 1973; Gergen, 2004; Lyydon, 1995), this qualitative study investigated four teachers’ experiences of incorporating English Language Learners’ funds of knowledge into a scripted writing program. Using an intrinsic case study methodology data collection methods included interviews with teachers, observations, and artifact collection. The major findings from this study were threefold. First, teachers' experiences, both in their personal backgrounds and training, affected how they implemented or approached implementing the scripted writing program. Second, teachers encountered obstacles incorporating students' funds of knowledge into the scripted curriculum, with the main obstacles being the relevancy of examples in the lessons and pacing. And third, teachers actively modified the scripted program to meet students' needs.


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