Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Physics and Astronomy

First Advisor

Nikolaus Dietz

Second Advisor

Brian D. Thoms

Third Advisor

Vadym Apalkov

Fourth Advisor

Murad Sarsour

Fifth Advisor

Douglas R. Gies


The objective of this dissertation is to shed light on the physical properties of InN epilayers grown by High-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) for optical device applications. Physical properties of HPCVD grown InN layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, infrared reflection spectroscopies, and atomic force microscopy. The dependencies of physical properties as well as surface morphologies of InN layers grown either directly on sapphire substrates or on GaN/sapphire templates on varied growth conditions were studied. The effect of crucial growth parameters such as growth pressure, V/III molar ratio, precursor pulse separation, substrate material, and mass transport along the flow direction on the optical and structural properties, as well as on the surface morphologies were investigated separately.

At present, growth of high-quality InN material by conventional growth techniques is limited due to low dissociation temperature of InN (~600 ºC) and large difference in the partial pressures of TMI and NH3 precursors. In this research, HPCVD technique, in which ambient nitrogen is injected into reaction zone at super-atmospheric growth pressures, was utilized to suppress surface dissociation of InN at high temperatures.

At high pressures, long-range and short-range orderings indicate that c-lattice constant is shorter and E2(high) mode frequency is higher than those obtained from low-pressure growth techniques, revealing that InN structure compressed either due to a hydrostatic pressure during the growth or thermal contraction during the annealing. Although the influence of varied growth parameters usually exhibit consistent correlation between long-range and short-range crystalline orderings, inconsistent correlation of these indicate inclination of InN anisotropy.

InN layers, grown directly on α-sapphire substrates, exhibit InN (1 0 1) Bragg reflex. This might be due to a high c/a ratio of sapphire-grown InN epilayers compared to that of GaN/sapphire-grown InN epilayers. Optical analysis indicates that free carrier concentration, ne, in the range of 1–50 × 1018 cm–3 exhibits consistent tendency with longitudinal-optic phonon. However, for high ne values, electrostatic forces dominate over inter-atomic forces, and consistent tendency between ne and LO phonon disappears.

Structural results reveal that growth temperature increases ~6.6 ºC/bar and V/III ratio affects indium migration and/or evaporation. The growth temperature and V/III ratio of InN thin films are optimized at ~850 ºC and 2400 molar ratio, respectively. Although high in-plane strain and c/a ratio values are obtained for sapphire-grown epilayers, FWHM values of long-range and short-range orderings and free carrier concentration value are still lower than those of GaN/sapphire-grown epilayers.

Finally, vibrational and optical properties of chalcopyrite ZGP crystal on the (001), (110), and (10) crystalline planes were investigated by Raman scattering and infrared (IR) reflection spectroscopies. Raman scattering exhibits a nonlinear polarizability on the c-plane, and a linear polarizability on the a- and b-planes of ZGP crystal. Also, birefringence of ZGP crystal was calculated from the hydrostatic pressure difference between (110) and (10) crystalline planes for mid-frequency B2(LO) mode.