Brain areas within the motor system interact directly or indirectly during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks. These interactions and their functionality can change following stroke and recovery. How brain network interactions reorganize and recover their functionality during recovery and treatment following stroke are not well understood. To contribute to answering these questions, we recorded blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals from10 stroke survivors and evaluated dynamical causal modeling (DCM)-based effective connectivity among three motor areas: primary motor cortex (M1), premotor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA), during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks. We compared the connectivity between affected and unaffected hemispheres before and after mental practice and combined mental practice and physical therapy as treatments. The treatment (intervention) period varied in length between 14 to 51 days but all patients received the same dose of 60 h of treatment. Using Bayesian model selection (BMS) approach in the DCMapproach, wefound that, after intervention, the same network dominated during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks butmodulatory parameters suggested a suppressive influence of SM A on M1 during the motor-imagery task whereas the influence of SM A on M1 was unrestricted during themotor-execution task.We found that the intervention caused a reorganization of the network during both tasks for unaffected as well as for the affected hemisphere. Using Bayesian model averaging (BMA) approach, we found that the intervention improved the regional connectivity among the motor areas during both the tasks. The connectivity between PMCandM1was stronger inmotor-imagery taskswhereas the connectivity from PMC to M1, SM A to M1 dominated in motor-execution tasks. There was significant behavioral improvement (p = 0.001) in sensation and motor movements because of the intervention as reflected by behavioral Fugl-Meyer (FMA)measures,whichwere significantly correlated (p=0.05)with a subset of connectivity. These findings suggest that PMC andM1 play a crucial role duringmotor-imagery aswell as during motorexecution task. In addition,M1 causesmore exchange of causal information amongmotor areas during a motorexecution task than during a motor-imagery task due to its interaction with SM A. This study expands our understanding of motor network involved during two different tasks, which are commonly used during rehabilitation following stroke. A clear understanding of the effective connectivity networks leads to a better treatment in helping stroke survivors regain motor ability.
S. Bajaj, A. J. Butler, D. Drake and M. Dhamala. Brain Effective Connectivity During Motor-Imagery and Execution Following Stroke and Rehabilitation. Neuroimage Clin, 8 572-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2015.06.006
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