For interaction of light with condensed-matter systems, we show with simulations that ultrafast electron and X-ray diffraction can provide a time-dependent record of charge-density maps with sub-cycle and atomic-scale resolutions. Using graphene as an example material, we predict that diffraction can reveal localised atomic-scale origins of optical and electronic phenomena. In particular, we point out nontrivial relations between microscopic electric current and density in undoped graphene.
Yakovlev, V. S. et al. Atomic-scale diffractive imaging of subcycle electron dynamics in condensed matter. Sci. Rep. 5, 14581; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14581 (2015).
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