Results from a controlled evaluation of remedial reading interventions are reported: 279 young disabled readers were randomly assigned to a program according to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design (IQ, socioeconomic status [SES], and race). The effectiveness of two multiple-component intervention programs for children with reading disabilities (PHAB + RAVE-O; PHAB + WIST) was evaluated against alternate (CSS, MATH) and phonological control programs. Interventions were taught an hour daily for 70 days on a 1:4 ratio at three different sites. Multiple-component programs showed significant improvements relative to control programs on all basic reading skills after 70 hours and at 1-year follow-up. Equivalent gains were observed for different racial, SES, and IQ groups. These factors did not systematically interact with program. Differential outcomes for word identification, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary were found between the multidimensional pro- grams, although equivalent long-term outcomes and equal continued growth confirmed that different pathways exist to effective reading remediation.
Morris, R.D., Lovett, M.W., Wolf, M., Sevick, R.A., Steinbach, K.A., Frijters, J.C. & Shapiro, M. (2012). Multiple component remediation of developmental reading disabilities: A Controlled factorial evaluation of the influence of IQ, socioeconomic status, and race on outcomes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(2), 99-127.