Date of Award
Master of Science (MS)
Background: Aerosol therapy has been established as an efficient form of drug delivery to pediatric and adult patients with respiratory diseases; however, aerosol delivery to the pediatric population is quite challenging. While some studies compare jet nebulizer (JN), vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN), or JN and pMDI, there is no study comparing these three devices in pediatric and young children. The aim of this study quantifies aerosol deposition using JN, VMN, and pMDI/VHC in a simulated pediatric with active and passive breathing patterns.
Methods: Each aerosol generator was placed between manual resuscitator bag (Ambu SPUR II Disposable Resuscitator, Ambu Inc, Glen Burnie, MD) and infant facemask (Mercury Medical, Cleanwater, FL), which was held tightly against the SAINT model. Breathing parameters used in this study were Vt of 100 mL, RR of 30 breaths/min, and I:E ratio of 1: 1.4. Active and passive breathing patterns were used in this study with aerosol device; active breathing pattern was created using a ventilator (Esprit Ventilator, Respironics/Philips Healthcare, Murrysville, PA) connected to a dual chamber test lung (Michigan Instruments, Grand Rapids, MI), which was attached to an absolute filter (Respirgard II, Vital Signs Colorado Inc, Englewood, CO), to collect aerosolized drug, connected to the SAINT model. Pediatric resuscitator bag was run at 10 L/min of oxygen and attached to aerosol generator with facemask. In passive breathing pattern, SAINT model was attached to test lung and ventilated using the resuscitator bag with the same breathing parameters. Each aerosol device was tested three times (n=3) with each breathing patterns. Drug was eluted from the filter and analyzed using spectrophotometry. The amount of drug deposited on the filter was quantified and expressed as a percentage of the total drug dose. To measure the differences in the inhaled drug mass between JN, VMN, and pMDI/VHC in active or passive breathing, one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) was performed. To quantify the difference in aerosol depositions between the two breathing patterns, independent t-test was performed. A p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results: Although the amount of aerosol deposition with the JN was the same in passive and active breathing without any significant difference, the VMN was more efficient in active breathing than the JN (p = 0.157 and p = 0.729, respectively). pMDI/VHC had the greatest deposition in the simulated spontaneous breathing (p=0.013)
Conclusion: Aerosol treatment may be administered to young children using JN, VMN, or pMDI/VHC combined with resuscitator bag. Using pMDI/VHC with resuscitator bag is the best choice to deliver albuterol in spontaneously breathing children. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of these aerosol generators with different type of resuscitator bag and different breathing parameters.
Al Sultan, Huriah A., "In-Vitro Comparison of Aerosol Drug Delivery in Pediatrics Using Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler, Jet Nebulizer, and Vibrating Mesh Nebulizers." Thesis, Georgia State University, 2012.