Document Type

Research Paper

Publication Date



An original research paper utilizing archival and primary sources. An interpretative framework drawn from a local Atlanta historical topic, with particular focus on cultures of manhood in the U.S. South during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that includes bibliographical research in secondary materials. Alonzo and Norris Herndon - a father and son duo - although having contrasting views of masculinity, were two similarly influential African American businessmen in the course of the twentieth century. These two gentlemen individually took an active role in redefining masculinity during the shift from Victorian America to a more modern ethos that roughly occurred between the 1890s and the 1920s. They are a significant part of black Atlanta’s local history, due to their ability to build a successful enterprise during a time when black masculinity was threatened by white dominant culture. As a result, in a study with a focus on the defining of masculinity by two men in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, there exists supportive evidence to conclude that Alonzo and Norris Herndon challenged societal norms in their distinct attempts to define masculinity.


2011 University Library Undergraduate Research Award winner. The is the runner-up winning paper from a Junior or Senior for a 3000 or 4000 level GSU course.

Course: HIST 4990 - American Men/Local Masculinities Historical Research (CTW Seminar)
Faculty advisor: Dr. Joseph Perry

Zotero software was used to insert footnotes and create the bibliography.