Date of Award

Spring 5-5-2012

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Computer Science

First Advisor

Yi Pan

Abstract

Biological motifs are defined as overly recurring sub-patterns in biological systems. Sequence motifs and network motifs are the examples of biological motifs. Due to the wide range of applications, many algorithms and computational tools have been developed for efficient search for biological motifs. Therefore, there are more computationally derived motifs than experimentally validated motifs, and how to validate the biological significance of the ‘candidate motifs’ becomes an important question. Some of sequence motifs are verified by their structural similarities or their functional roles in DNA or protein sequences, and stored in databases. However, biological role of

network motifs is still invalidated and currently no databases exist for this purpose.

In this thesis, we focus not only on the computational efficiency but also on the biological meanings of the motifs. We provide an efficient way to incorporate biological information with clustering analysis methods: For example, a sparse nonnegative matrix factorization (SNMF) method is used with Chou-Fasman parameters for the protein motif finding. Biological network motifs are searched by various clustering algorithms with Gene ontology (GO) information. Experimental results show that the algorithms perform better than existing algorithms by producing a larger number of high-quality of biological motifs.

In addition, we apply biological network motifs for the discovery of essential proteins. Essential proteins are defined as a minimum set of proteins which are vital for development to a fertile adult and in a cellular life in an organism. We design a new centrality algorithm with biological network motifs, named MCGO, and score proteins in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to find essential proteins. MCGO is also combined with other centrality measures to predict essential proteins using machine learning techniques.

We have three contributions to the study of biological motifs through this thesis; 1) Clustering analysis is efficiently used in this work and biological information is easily integrated with the analysis; 2) We focus more on the biological meanings of motifs by adding biological knowledge in the algorithms and by suggesting biologically related evaluation methods. 3) Biological network motifs are successfully applied to a practical application of prediction of essential proteins.

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