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Functional positive cooperative activation of the extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]o)-sensing receptor (CaSR), a member of the family C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), by [Ca2+]o or amino acids elicits intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) oscillations. Here, we report the central role of predicted Ca2+-binding Site 1 within the hinge region of the extracellular domain (ECD) of CaSR and its interaction with other Ca2+-binding sites within the ECD in tuning functional positive homotropic cooperativity caused by changes in [Ca2+]o. Next, we identify an adjacent L-Phe-binding pocket that is responsible for positive heterotropic cooperativity between [Ca2+]o and L- Phe in eliciting CaSR-mediated [Ca2+]i oscillations. The hetero-communication between Ca2+ and an amino acid globally enhances functional positive homotropic cooperative activation of CaSR in response to [Ca2+]o signaling by positively impacting multiple [Ca2+]o-binding sites within the ECD. Elucidation of the underlying mechanism provides important insights into the longstanding question of how the receptor transduces signals initiated by [Ca2+]o and amino acids into intracellular signaling events.


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J Biol Chem, 289 (8), 5296-309. doi:

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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