Document Type


Publication Date



The present study investigated the role of lifetime television (TV) use and TV use across life stages (i.e., childhood, adolescence, adulthood) on racial attitudes. In a young adult sample (N = 268), lifetime TV use was not associated with racial attitudes either directly or indirectly. However, when testing the effects of TV use across specific life stages, TV use during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood were each indirectly associated with current racial attitudes through implicitly measured norms and motivation to avoid racism. Overall, childhood and adulthood TV use was associated with stronger racism whereas adolescence TV use was associated with weaker racism. Directions for future research are discussed.


Author accepted manuscript version (postprint) of an article published by Taylor & Francis in

Shay Xuejing Yao, Nikki McClaran, Morgan E. Ellithorpe, David Ewoldsen & Fashina Alade (2023) Lifetime TV Use Influences Racial Prejudice Through Cultivating Implicit Norms: Differed Effects Across Three Life Stages, Communication Reports, 36:3, 175-189,


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Available for download on Monday, February 10, 2025

Included in

Communication Commons