Date of Award

Summer 8-11-2020

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling and Psychological Services

First Advisor

Don E. Davis

Second Advisor

Erin Mason

Third Advisor

Catherine Chang

Fourth Advisor

Franco Dispenza


By 2022, estimates suggest that students of color will become the majority population within K-12 schools (Harris et al., 2018). With the growing number of students of color and the estimated 70% of school counselors that identify as white and female, the need for multicultural awareness is especially salient (DataUSA, 2017). With the changing demographics and strong presence of the dominant culture within the school counseling profession, it is imperative that school counselors at all levels (pre-K-12) are multiculturally competent and aware of how their behaviors, conceptualization, and advocacy impact campus climate and student success (Greene, 2018). School counselors who are multiculturally oriented and advocates for social justice are crucial to creating a more inclusive school environment. Multiculturalism has become one of the defining commitments of the counseling profession. Thus, chapter one takes stock of the empirical literature on multicultural counseling competencies within counseling journals. As concluded in chapter one, we have limited research on multicultural competencies and related constructs within school counseling literature. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to address this gap in the literature by investigating several potential indicators of multicultural competence in a sample of school counselors, including self-reports of multicultural competence and social justice advocacy and the relationship with multicultural orientation (MCO) constructs using a case conceptualization.


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