Author ORCID Identifier

Date of Award

Summer 8-9-2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling and Psychological Services

First Advisor

Don E. Davis

Second Advisor

Cirleen DeBlaere

Third Advisor

Ken Rice

Fourth Advisor

Ha Na Suh


Now 40-years old, John Berry’s integration hypothesis of acculturation corrected many misconceptions about how to help people adjust to cross-cultural encounters. This research program has influenced many helping professionals—including counselors, educators, and policymakers—in support of people living cross-culturally. However, there are a number of issues that limit the applicability of his original theorizing on acculturation strategies for those living as a part of multiple cultural communities. In the first chapter of this dissertation, I conduct a review of longitudinal person-centered studies on acculturation orientations to critically address the helpfulness and limitations of his theory. In the second chapter, I critically test the integration hypothesis of acculturation through latent class growth curve analysis to determine how acculturation strategies are related to well-being over time in an adult immigrant sample. I then sought to explore the relationship of humility and well-being among people living cross-culturally. In a sample of 1552 adult immigrants from the New Zealand Values and Attitudes Survey (NZVAS), I explored (1) whether humility would incrementally predict well-being in addition to acculturation and enculturation of identity, and (2) whether humility would moderate the relationship of acculturation orientations and well-being. Specifically, I hypothesized that for those with an integration profile, higher levels of humility would predict a greater level of well-being. For those with non-integration strategies, I hypothesized that humility would interact with their acculturation orientation in a way that buffers the negative relationship between the likelihood of being classified in non-integration profiles with well-being. This would indicate humility promotes greater levels of well-being among people with different balances of cultural identities or commitments. Against my prediction, humility did not interact with acculturation orientations to predict levels or changes in well-being. Results of latent class growth curve and moderation analyses provided partial support for hypotheses of this study. In addition to acculturation orientation and ethnic deprivation, humility did incrementally predict variance in levels of well-being in an adult immigrant sample. I conclude by discussing implications and future directions for the study of acculturation and humility in cross-cultural contexts.


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