Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Early Childhood Education

First Advisor

Diane Truscott

Second Advisor

Sarah Bridges-Rhoads

Third Advisor

Teri Holbrook

Fourth Advisor

Michelle Zoss


For the current study, I engaged in a self-study to understand how my White racial identity influenced my teaching and learning practices in multiple contexts and how my racial identity changed over time. This study was framed in Helms’ (2020) White racial identity framework, which consists of a total of six schemas. Each schema details different ways in which White racial identity presents depending on the level of White racial identity being centered. The current research utilized multiple methods to establish trustworthiness. Data generation and analysis occurred simultaneously. I used artifact elicitation, which involves including a stimulus, during four interviews or discussions with a critical friend to encourage increased detail and depth in an interview (Henry & Fetters, 2012). The stimulus for this study included a total of 32 artifacts: 25 text-based artifacts including instructional handouts and assignments, 5 visual artifacts, including collages and sketches, and 2 social media sites. Data sources included the transcripts from the discussion and reflective writing with the texts of Saad (2020) and Helms (2020) as critical friends. Data were analyzed using reflective thematic analysis and constant comparison to ensure in-depth analysis and critical reflection. Findings suggest that racial identity shifts as White teachers move through various contexts. Additionally, this research supports Helms’ (2020) assertion that racial identity schemas are fluid and changing and that multiple schemas may operate at the same time. Understanding how my racial identity was represented in these artifacts offers guidance for other White teachers who are engaging in similar work and possible reasons for these moves.


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