Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Psychology and Special Education

First Advisor

Paul A. Alberto

Second Advisor

Laura D. Fredrick

Third Advisor

Kristine Jolivette

Fourth Advisor

Christopher A. Tullis


Response cards (RC) are signs or cards that allow students to hold up their answer and simultaneously respond to teacher prompts. Researchers have examined the use of RC in a variety of different settings with students with and without disabilities and have found an array of positive effects on behavioral and academic outcomes; however, there is a paucity of research on the use of RC for students with moderate intellectual disability (MoID). This study directly examined the effects of RC with students with MoID on academic engagement, active student responding, task accuracy, and total instructional time while teaching students to determine more/less than. A multiple-baseline across dyads design with an embedded reversal was employed to determine the effects of RC on the dependent variables. Direct observation data were collected via recorded video sessions for all dependent variables. Visual analysis assessed the following six features as recommended by Kratochwill et al. (2010): level, trend, variability, immediacy of the effect, overlap, and consistency of data patterns across similar phases. In addition, percent change across phases was calculated.

Results of the study were mixed; however, a functional relation was established for one of the five students for the dependent variables of academic engagement and active student responding. All five student participants reached mastery criteria for task accuracy. Both teacher participants were able to implement the intervention with high levels of fidelity. In addition, teachers and students found the intervention to be socially acceptable and all students preferred to complete their instruction using RC.