Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Psychology and Special Education

First Advisor

Nicole Patton-Terry, PhD

Second Advisor

Debra McKeown, PhD

Third Advisor

Julie Washington, PhD

Fourth Advisor

Laura Fredrick, PhD


Coaching has been identified as a critical support for persistent use of newly adopted practices and skills (Joyce & Showers, 1982). A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the literature base on supervisory coaching, an approach in which an outside expert or supervisor gives specific, positive, and corrective coaching when needed and is offered to the teacher after the completion of the observed lesson in an effort to move the recipient toward a desired level of performance (Joyce & Showers, 1981; 1982; Maeda, 2001; Simonsen, Myers, & DeLuca, 2010). Sixteen quasi-experimental and single-subject studies were identified and reviewed using quality indicators specific to quasi-experimental (Gersten et al., 2005) and single subject (Horner et al., 2005) research. Only six of the sixteen studies met all quality indicators. Mixed results were found across the studies, with six reporting improved teacher results and four reporting improved student behaviors. The subsequent study explored an alternative means to offering supervisory coaching to teachers: professional development and virtual teacher coaching with videoconferencing. A single-case multiple baseline design was used to investigate the effect the intervention had on the frequency with which teachers offer Opportunities to Respond (OTR) and on the on-task behavior of middle school students with emotional/ behavior disorders (E/BD). OTR is a teacher behavior that petitions a student response (Haydon et al., 2010). After baseline data was collected, virtual coaching sessions were implemented to increase OTR after every other observed session. Results indicated there was a functional relation between virtual teacher coaching with videoconferencing and teacher rates of OTR. However, no functional relation was observed between teachers given OTR and student on-task behavior. Implications for virtual teacher coaching, OTR, and future research are discussed.