Document Type


Publication Date



Teacher retention and recruitment is becoming a serious matter, specifically for foreign language educators. Five factors contributing to the shortage are discussed and two more are advanced: vocational interest and teachers’ sense of efficacy. Citing a dearth of active FL educator recruitment initiatives attempting to arrest the problem, this quantitative study (n=80) established a vocational profile of an efficacious foreign language instructor using the Self Directed Search interest inventory (Holland, 1994) and the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001). Correlational analysis of the two instruments indicated a stable profile for highly efficacious foreign language educators. This interest profile has serious implications for the identification of highly efficacious foreign language educators as a means for recruitment and retention.


Originally published in

Swanson, P. (2008). Efficacy and interest profile of foreign language teachers during a time of critical shortage. NECTFL Review, 62, 55-74.