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Multimodal writing often occurs through membership in an online, participatory culture; thus, the audience for student writers potentially can shift from imagined readers to actual, accessible readers and responders. In this article, we thoroughly review the idea of audience and then report results from an exploratory review of K-12 assessment frameworks and analyze how key frameworks address the need for consideration of an interactive audience. We found that multimodal composition is being defined consistently across all frameworks as composition that includes multiple ways of communicating, but the majority of multimodal composition examples were texts that were non-interactive composition types (as far as online and participatory interaction with the actual audience is concerned) even though many authors acknowledged the emergence of interactive online composition types that afford the writer the ability to communicate and collaborate with an audience.


Author Accepted Manuscript version of an article published in:

McGrail, E., & Behizadeh, N. (2016). K-12 multimodal assessment and interactive audiences: An exploratory analysis of existing frameworks. Assessing Writing.