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The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the instructional discourse of two middle school choral music teachers videotaped during a total of 24 classroom visits. The findings indicate that teacher attention to complete sequential units of instruction (teacher presentation, student interaction, teacher feedback) may encourage the employment of scaffolding language (language that supports student learning). Focus on scaffolding language corresponded to a decrease in the completion of sequential units of instruction. Choral teachers seeking to foster a constructivist-oriented rehearsal environment may find it advantageous to focus attention on the completion of sequential units of instruction. Similarly, teachers of collegiate methods classes may wish to draw students’ attention to complete sequential units as a precursor to exploring the application of constructivist theory to ensemble rehearsal technique.


Author accepted manuscript version of an article published as:

Freer, P. K. (2009). Focus on Scaffolding Language and Sequential Units During Choral Instruction. Update-Applications of Research in Music Education, 28(1), 33-40. doi: 10.1177/8755123309344327

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