Date of Award
Master of Science (MS)
Background: The typical western diet contains foods with modest amounts of lipid oxidation products. Previous work by us and others have demonstrated that mildly oxidized lipids promote a gain in fat mass while highly oxidized lipids decrease fat mass in rodents and triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by a key nuclear transcription factor known as PPARγ.
Objective: To investigate if the alterations in triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells pretreated with oxidized soy oil are due to 1) a change in PPARg DNA interactions 2) changes in the expression of SREBP-1c, PPARg, and/or its target genes.
Main Methods: Confluent 3T3-L1 cells were pretreated for 24hours with 0.01% soy oil (SO) which was either unheated (unheated SO) or heated for 3, (3h-SO), 6 (6h-SO), or 9hours (9h-SO). The effect of 24hour soy oil exposure was assessed at several time points throughout the differentiation process. Alterations in PPARg DNA interaction was assessed using a PPARγ transcription factor assay kit while alterations in the expression of genes upstream and downstream of PPARγ was determined by RT-PCR. Primary and secondary products of oxidation within the SO were determined by spectrophotometry.
Results: The 6hr-SO contained the greatest concentration of peroxides whereas both the 6hr-SO and 9hr-SO contained a significantly higher concentration of conjugated dienes and aldehydes.Nuclear extracts from 3T3-L1 cells pretreated with 6h-SO demonstrated the greatest reduction in PPARγ DNA binding. Compared to the unheated SO and mildly oxidized 3h-SO, cells treated with the 6h-SO had a significant reduction in SREBP-1c, PPARg, LPL, and GLUT4 expression occurring early in the differentiation process. Variations in the gene expression of 6hr-SO pretreated cells persisted within partially differentiated and mature adipocytes.
Conclusions: Pre-treatment of preadipocytes with soy oil heated for ³ 6h greatly decreases the activity of PPARγ in the nucleus and adipogenic gene expression . These changes seen in early differentiation seem to correlate the best with the phenotype of reduced triglyceride accumulation seen in mature adipocytes.
Dingels, Nicole Katherine, "Oxidized soybean oil alters the expression of PPAR gamma and target genes in 3T3-L1 cells." Thesis, Georgia State University, 2012.