Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Wing Yi Chan

Second Advisor

Gabriel Kuperminc

Third Advisor

Kevin Swartout


There is a gender gap in political and business leadership. the purpose of this study is twofold. First, it investigated the extent to which leadership self-efficacy would be associated with leadership participation among sorority college students. Second, it examined the extent to which the sorority setting, through setting-level norms, would moderate the effect of leadership self-efficacy on participation. The current study found that higher leadership efficacy is related to higher leadership participation in female college students who are sorority members. This study also found that behavioral setting-level norms are related to leadership participation. This study found that the interaction between leadership self-efficacy and behavioral norms had a significant negative relationship with leadership participation. Scientific and practical implications are discussed, as well as future directions based on our findings.