Author ORCID Identifier

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Erin Tully, PhD


The current study assessed 1) whether there are bidirectional associations between parent-reported parent-to-child and/or child-to-parent internalizing psychopathology from middle childhood to preadolescence, 2) if child-reported parental acceptance/warmth moderates bidirectional associations, and 3) if bidirectional associations vary by parent-child sex dyad. A sample of 11,878 9/10-year-old children (48% female) at the baseline of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study and follow-up two years later (N=6,552) completed child-report parental acceptance/warmth and parent-report children’s and parents’ internalizing psychopathology measures. Path analysis revealed 1) significant, yet small, parent-to-child and child-to-parent bidirectional associations of internalizing psychopathology, 2) parental acceptance/warmth neither moderated parent-to-child nor child-to-parent bidirectional associations, and 3) the most parsimonious model constrained parent-child sex dyad bidirectional associations to equality. These results suggest additional risk is conferred by longitudinal parent-to-child and child-to-parent transmission that is not accounted for by concurrent associations between parents’ and children’s internalizing problems or stability of internalizing problems across time.


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